Biofilms are often key players in human,
animal, and plant infections, fouling of industrial equipment, contamination
of water systems, as well as in waste remediation, not
even to mention their central roles in all geochemical cycles.
Viewed as materials, biofilms are quite interesting: they are living,
growing viscoelastic fluids with surprising ability to respond to
and defend against environmental challenges. However, they are also complex
systems in which biological, chemical, and physical factors are, in general,