This lecture is based on the following papers: 1. A. Majda and B.
Gershgorin, 2010: Quantifying Uncertainty in Climate Change Science
Through Empirical Information Theory, PNAS in press 2. A. Majda, R.
Abramov, B. Gershgorin, High Skill in Low Frequency Climate Response
through Fluctuation Dissipation Theorems Despite Structural
Instability, PNAS, January 2010, Vol. 107, no. 2, pp 581 - 586. 3. B.
Gershgorin, A. Majda, Filtering A Nonlinear Slow-Fast System with