Power System Control: Enhancing
the Human-System Interface

The Mathematics of August 14th 2003: How Complex?

Humans as the key link

August 14th 2003

Causes of August 14th Blackout

NERC Reliability Coordinators

Control Implications of August 14th

Early Power System Control (in 1919)

Late 1990ís Control Centers (ComED)

Control Center Trend Towards Overview Displays (ComED Now)

Overview of Real-time Power System Operations

Overview of Real-time Power System Operations

State Estimator Algorithm

Power Flow Equations

The DC Power Flow

The DC Power Flow Equation

Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs)

PTDF Visualization of a Power Transaction from Wisconsin to TVA

Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODFs)

Flowgates

Flows in Northeast Ohio at
15:00 EDT on August 14th 2003

Northeast Ohio 138 kV Voltage Contour: 15:00 EDT

Flowgate 2265

Flowgate #2265

Flows in Northeast Ohio at
15:33 EDT on August 14th 2003

Northeast Ohio 138 kV Voltage Contour: 15:33 EDT

Flows in Northeast Ohio at
15:46 EDT on August 14th 2003

Northeast Ohio 138 kV Voltage Contour: 15:46 EDT

Flows in Northeast Ohio at
16:05 EDT on August 14th 2003

Northeast Ohio 138 kV Voltage Contour: 16:05 EDT

Are DC LODFs Accurate?
August 14th Crash Test

The Results are Actually Quite Good!

System was WellBehaved

What was missing on August 14th?

System with Dynamic Sized Pie Charts used to Indicate Loading

Contouring

Continuous Contour of Bus LMPs

Discrete Contour of Bus LMPs

Interactive 3D Visualization

3D View of Generation Sources in Midwest

Visualization of Contingency Analysis Results

Single Device Contingencies: Contingency to Violated Elements

Single Device Contingencies: Violated Element to Contingencies

Conclusion