**Discovery of ER fluids
(1942-1949)**

**The Dielectric
Electrorheological Model**

**"The overall
electrostatic free energy..."**

**Bounds on
Electrorheological Properties**

**Heuristic Derivation of
the Upper Bound Form**

**Bounds Suggest an Improved
ER Particle**

**The Role of Water in ER
Fluids**

**Giant Electrorheological
(GER) Fluid**

**"Linear variation of
the yield..."**

**Saturation Polarization
Layer Model**

**"Finite element
approach (FEA"**

**Calculation of Equilibrium
Configuration**

**Shear Modulus and Static
Yield Stress**

**Field Dependence of Yield
Stress**

**Formation of the Surface
Aligned Dipolar Layers**

**Effective Interaction
Induced by the EW Effect**

**Size Scaling Effect of GER
Fluids**

**Issues Still Remaining to
be Resolved**