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"Introduction to ER fluids"

Discovery of ER fluids (1942-1949)

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Study of the ER Mechanism

The Dielectric Electrorheological Model

"The overall electrostatic free energy..."

Calculation of

Calculation of

Calculation of       (continued)

Calculation of       (continued)

Calculation of       (continued)

The Search for the Maximum

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Shear Modulus Calculation

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Bounds on Electrorheological Properties

Heuristic Derivation of the          Upper Bound Form

Bounds Suggest an Improved ER Particle

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The Role of Water

The Role of Water in ER Fluids

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Giant Electrorheological (GER) Fluid

"Linear variation of the yield..."

Formulation of a GER Model

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Saturation Polarization Layer Model


"Finite element approach (FEA"

Elastic Energy

Calculation of Equilibrium Configuration

Shear Modulus and Static Yield Stress

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Field Dependence of Yield Stress

Current Density

Formation of the Surface Aligned Dipolar Layers

Electrowetting (EW) Effect

Effective Interaction Induced by the EW Effect

Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo Simulation

Size Scaling Effect of GER Fluids

Issues Still Remaining to be Resolved

Roles of Mathematical Modeling and Simulation